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手把手教你在CentOS上搭建Kubernetes集群

作者:ChamPly

安裝CentOS


1.安裝net-tools

[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y net-tools

2.關閉firewalld

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl stop firewalld && systemctl disable firewalld
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.
[[email protected] ~]# setenforce 0
[[email protected] ~]# sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config

安裝Docker


如今Docker分為了Docker-CE和Docker-EE兩個版本,CE為社區版即免費版,EE為企業版即商業版。我們選擇使用CE版。


1.安裝yum源工具包

[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2

2.下載docker-ce官方的yum源配置檔案

[[email protected] ~]# yum-config-manager --add-repo https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

3.禁用docker-c-edge源配edge是不開發版,不穩定,下載stable版

yum-config-manager --disable docker-ce-edge

4.更新本地YUM源快取

yum makecache fast

5.安裝Docker-ce相應版本的

yum -y install docker-ce

6.運行hello world

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start docker
[[email protected] ~]# docker run hello-world
Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/hello-world
9a0669468bf7: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:0e06ef5e1945a718b02a8c319e15bae44f47039005530bc617a5d071190ed3fc
Status: Downloaded newer image for hello-world:latest

Hello from Docker!
This message shows that your installation appears to be working correctly.

To generate this message, Docker took the following steps:
1. The Docker client contacted the Docker daemon.
2. The Docker daemon pulled the "hello-world" image from the Docker Hub.
3. The Docker daemon created a new container from that image which runs the
   executable that produces the output you are currently reading.
4. The Docker daemon streamed that output to the Docker client, which sent it
   to your terminal.

To try something more ambitious, you can run an Ubuntu container with:
$ docker run -it ubuntu bash

Share images, automate workflows, and more with a free Docker ID:
https://cloud.docker.com/

For more examples and ideas, visit:
https://docs.docker.com/engine/userguide/

安裝kubelet與kubeadm包


使用kubeadm init命令初始化集群之下載Docker鏡像到所有主機的實始化時會下載kubeadm必要的依賴鏡像,同時安裝etcd,kube-dns,kube-proxy,由於我們GFW防火牆問題我們不能直接訪問,因此先通過其它方法下載下麵串列中的鏡像,然後匯入到系統中,再使用kubeadm init來初始化集群


1.使用DaoCloud加速器(可以跳過這一步)

[[email protected] ~]# curl -sSL https://get.daocloud.io/daotools/set_mirror.sh | sh -s http://0d236e3f.m.daocloud.io
docker version >= 1.12
{"registry-mirrors": ["http://0d236e3f.m.daocloud.io"]}
Success.
You need to restart docker to take effect: sudo systemctl restart docker
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart docker

2.下載鏡像,自己通過Dockerfile到dockerhub生成對鏡像,也可以克隆我的

images=(kube-controller-manager-amd64 etcd-amd64 k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64 kube-proxy-amd64 kube-apiserver-amd64 kube-scheduler-amd64 pause-amd64 k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64 k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64)
for imageName in ${images[@]} ; do
 docker pull champly/$imageName
 docker tag champly/$imageName gcr.io/google_containers/$imageName
 docker rmi champly/$imageName
done

3.修改版本

docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64:3.0.17 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.5 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.5 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.2 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/kube-apiserver-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.7.5 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/kube-apiserver-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/kube-controller-manager-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.7.5 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/kube-controller-manager-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/kube-proxy-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.6.0 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/kube-proxy-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/kube-scheduler-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.7.5 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/kube-scheduler-amd64 && \
docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/pause-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/pause-amd64:3.0 && \
docker rmi gcr.io/google_containers/pause-amd64

4.添加阿裡源

[[email protected] ~]#  cat >> /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo << EOF
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
EOF

5.查看kubectl kubelet kubeadm kubernetes-cni串列


[[email protected] ~]# yum list kubectl kubelet kubeadm kubernetes-cni
已加載插件:fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base: mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn
* extras: mirrors.sohu.com
* updates: mirrors.sohu.com
可安裝的軟體包
kubeadm.x86_64                                                     1.7.5-0                                              kubernetes
kubectl.x86_64                                                     1.7.5-0                                              kubernetes
kubelet.x86_64                                                     1.7.5-0                                              kubernetes
kubernetes-cni.x86_64                                              0.5.1-0                                              kubernetes
[[email protected] ~]#


6.安裝kubectl kubelet kubeadm kubernetes-cni

[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y kubectl kubelet kubeadm kubernetes-cni

修改cgroups

vi /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf

update KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=–cgroup-driver=systemd to KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=–cgroup-driver=cgroupfs


修改kubelet中的cAdvisor監控的端口,預設為0改為4194,這樣就可以通過瀏器查看kubelet的監控cAdvisor的web頁

[[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf

Environment=”KUBELET_CADVISOR_ARGS=–cadvisor-port=4194″


啟動所有主機上的kubelet服務

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

初始化master master節點上操作

[[email protected] ~]# kubeadm reset && kubeadm init --apiserver-advertise-address=192.168.0.100 --kubernetes-version=v1.7.5 --pod-network-cidr=10.200.0.0/16
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[reset] Stopping the kubelet service
[reset] Unmounting mounted directories in "/var/lib/kubelet"
[reset] Removing kubernetes-managed containers
[reset] Deleting contents of stateful directories: [/var/lib/kubelet /etc/cni/net.d /var/lib/dockershim /var/lib/etcd]
[reset] Deleting contents of config directories: [/etc/kubernetes/manifests /etc/kubernetes/pki]
[reset] Deleting files: [/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf /etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf /etc/kubernetes/scheduler.conf]
[kubeadm] WARNING: kubeadm is in beta, please do not use it for production clusters.
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.7.5
[init] Using Authorization modes: [Node RBAC]
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[preflight] WARNING: docker version is greater than the most recently validated version. Docker version: 17.09.0-ce. Max validated version: 1.12
[preflight] Starting the kubelet service
[kubeadm] WARNING: starting in 1.8, tokens expire after 24 hours by default (if you require a non-expiring token use --token-ttl 0)
[certificates] Generated CA certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated API server certificate and key.
[certificates] API Server serving cert is signed for DNS names [master kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 192.168.0.100]
[certificates] Generated API server kubelet client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated service account token signing key and public key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy CA certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy client certificate and key.
[certificates] Valid certificates and keys now exist in "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/scheduler.conf"
[apiclient] Created API client, waiting for the control plane to become ready
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 34.002949 seconds
[token] Using token: 0696ed.7cd261f787453bd9
[apiconfig] Created RBAC rules
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-dns

Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run (as a regular user):

 mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
 sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
 sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
 http://kubernetes.io/docs/admin/addons/

You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node
as root:

 kubeadm join --token 0696ed.7cd261f787453bd9 192.168.0.100:6443

[[email protected] ~]#

kubeadm join –token 0696ed.7cd261f787453bd9 192.168.0.100:6443 這個一定要記住,以後無法重現,添加節點需要


添加節點

[[email protected] ~]# kubeadm join --token 0696ed.7cd261f787453bd9 192.168.0.100:6443
[kubeadm] WARNING: kubeadm is in beta, please do not use it for production clusters.
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[preflight] WARNING: docker version is greater than the most recently validated version. Docker version: 17.09.0-ce. Max validated version: 1.12
[preflight] WARNING: kubelet service is not enabled, please run 'systemctl enable kubelet.service'
[preflight] Starting the kubelet service
[discovery] Trying to connect to API Server "192.168.0.100:6443"
[discovery] Created cluster-info discovery client, requesting info from "https://192.168.0.100:6443"
[discovery] Cluster info signature and contents are valid, will use API Server "https://192.168.0.100:6443"
[discovery] Successfully established connection with API Server "192.168.0.100:6443"
[bootstrap] Detected server version: v1.7.10
[bootstrap] The server supports the Certificates API (certificates.k8s.io/v1beta1)
[csr] Created API client to obtain unique certificate for this node, generating keys and certificate signing request
[csr] Received signed certificate from the API server, generating KubeConfig...
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf"

Node join complete:
* Certificate signing request sent to master and response
 received.
* Kubelet informed of new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the master to see this machine join.

在master配置kubectl的kubeconfig檔案

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
[[email protected] ~]# cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
[[email protected] ~]# chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

在Master上安裝flannel

docker pull quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.8.0-amd64
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/v0.8.0/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/v0.8.0/Documentation/kube-flannel-rbac.yml

查看集群

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE              ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok
controller-manager   Healthy   ok
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health": "true"}
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME      STATUS     AGE       VERSION
master    Ready      24m       v1.7.5
node1     NotReady   45s       v1.7.5
node2     NotReady   7s        v1.7.5
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                             READY     STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   etcd-master                      1/1       Running             0          24m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-master            1/1       Running             0          24m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-master   1/1       Running             0          24m
kube-system   kube-dns-2425271678-h48rw        0/3       ImagePullBackOff    0          25m
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-28n3w            1/2       CrashLoopBackOff    13         24m
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-ndspr            0/2       ContainerCreating   0          41s
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-zvx9j            0/2       ContainerCreating   0          1m
kube-system   kube-proxy-qxxzr                 0/1       ImagePullBackOff    0          41s
kube-system   kube-proxy-shkmx                 0/1       ImagePullBackOff    0          25m
kube-system   kube-proxy-vtk52                 0/1       ContainerCreating   0          1m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-master            1/1       Running             0          24m
[[email protected] ~]#

如果出現:The connection to the server localhost:8080 was refused – did you specify the right host or port?


解決辦法: 為了使用kubectl訪問apiserver,在~/.bash_profile中追加下麵的環境變數: export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf source ~/.bash_profile 重新初始化kubectl


作者:ChamPly

來源:https://my.oschina.net/ChamPly/blog/1575888

《Linux雲計算及運維架構師高薪實戰班》2018年05月14日即將開課中,120天衝擊Linux運維年薪30萬,改變速約~~~~

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